What Countries Have Not Ratified The Paris Agreement
Once ratified, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they will have to bite their share to keep global temperatures well below 2°C above pre-industrial times and „make efforts“ to limit them further to 1.5°C. Adaptation – the measures to be taken to deal with the effects of climate change – has much more weight under the Paris Agreement than before under the UNFCCC. Just as the Parties will submit mitigation contributions, the Agreement requires all Parties to plan and implement adjustment efforts „as necessary“ and encourages all Parties to report on their adaptation efforts and/or needs. The agreement also provides for a review of progress on adaptation and the adequacy and effectiveness of adaptation assistance as part of the five-year global stocktaking exercise. The NDC partnership was launched at COP22 in Marrakech to improve cooperation so that countries have access to the technical knowledge and financial support they need to achieve climate and sustainability goals on a large scale. The NDC partnership is led by a steering committee made up of developed and developing countries and international institutions, and supported by a support unit hosted by the World Resources Institute based in Washington, DC and Bonn, Germany. The NDC Partnership is jointly led by the governments of Costa Rica and the Netherlands and includes 93 member countries, 21 institutional partners and ten associate members. Two studies published in Nature revealed that in 2017, none of the major industrialized countries are implementing the measures they have presented and did not meet the promised emission reduction targets and even if they had done so, the sum of all accession commitments (from 2016) would not keep the rise in global temperature „well below 2°C“.   Only two countries refused to participate in the Paris Agreement, the historic climate agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions signed by almost all countries. One of them, Syria, is in ruins after six years of civil war. The other, Nicaragua, boycotted the deal in protest at its initial unambitious targets and its failure to legally tie countries to their emissions targets.